Friday, August 7, 2015

Sydney, australia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Australian metropolis. For the local government area, see City of Sydney. For other uses, see Sydney (disambiguation).
New South Wales
Sydney skyline at dusk - Dec 2008.jpg
The Sydney Opera House and CBD at dusk from Jeffrey Street, Kirribilli in December 2008
Sydney is located in Australia
Coordinates 33°51′54″S 151°12′34″ECoordinates: 33°51′54″S 151°12′34″E
Population 4,840,600 (2014)[1] (1st)
 • Density 380/km2 (980/sq mi) (2013)[2]
Established 26 January 1788
Area 12,367.7 km2 (4,775.2 sq mi)(GCCSA)[3]
Time zone AEST (UTC+10)
 • Summer (DST) AEDT (UTC+11)
LGA(s) various (38)
County Cumberland
State electorate(s) various (49)
Federal Division(s) various (24)
Mean max temp[4] Mean min temp[4] Annual rainfall[4]
22.5 °C
73 °F
14.5 °C
58 °F
1,222.7 mm
48.1 in
Footnotes Coordinates:[5]
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/[6] is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.[7] Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world's largest natural harbour, and sprawls towards the Blue Mountains to the west.[8] Residents of Sydney are known as "Sydneysiders". Sydney is the second official seat, and second official residence, of the Governor-General of Australia, the Prime Minister of Australia and the Cabinet of Australia.
The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for tens of millennia.[9] The first British settlers arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the mid-19th century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. The population of Sydney at the time of the 2011 census was 4.39 million, 1.5 million of which were born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world.[3][10] There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home.[11][12]
Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing and tourism. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia.[13] There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Asia Pacific's leading financial hub.[14][15][16][17] In addition to hosting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics, millions of tourists come to Sydney each year to see the city's landmarks.[18] Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Bondi Beach, and the Royal Botanic Gardens. Man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are also well known to international visitors.


First inhabitants

The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from south east Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity occurred in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years.[9] The earliest British settlers called them Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.[19] Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan.[19] The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.[20]
Development has destroyed much of the city's history including that of the first inhabitants. There continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park.[21] The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.[20][22][23] He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors.[20] Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.

Establishment of the Colony

A Direct North General View of Sydney Cove, by convict artist Thomas Watling in 1794
The United Kingdom had for a long time been sending its convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies. That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Overrun with prisoners, Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier. Captain Arthur Phillip was charged with establishing the new colony. He led a fleet (known as the First Fleet) of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of fresh water. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788.[24][25] This was to be the location for the new colony. The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. The name was at first to be Albion but Phillip decided on Sydney in recognition of Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney and his role in authorising the establishment of the settlement.
Sydney Cove from Dawes Point, 1817
Between 1788 and 1792 about 4,300 convicts were landed at Sydney. The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.[26][27] Officers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land.[28] The region's indigenous population was also suffering. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789.[19][29] Some mounted violent resistance to the British settlers. Lachlan Macquarie became Governor in 1810.
Macquarie did make the most of less than ideal circumstances. His first task was to restore order after the Rum Rebellion of 1808 against the previous Governor. Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.[26][30] Macquarie undertook an extensive building programme of some 265 separate works.[31] Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and come 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares. Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.[31]

Modern development

The year 1850 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000.[24][26] The municipal council of Sydney was incorporated in 1842 and became Australia's first city.[32] Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking a to make money.[24][32] Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871.[33]
Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form a federated nation of The Commonwealth of Australia. Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales.[27] The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners was unemployed.[34] Construction of the Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932.[35] The population continued to boom despite the Depression and reached 1 million in 1925.[33]
Sydney Harbour in 1932
When Britain declared war in 1939, Australia too entered. During the war Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a direct attack from Japanese submarines with some lose of life.[36] Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills.
Following the end of the war the city continued to expand. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney at 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the a reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour.[37] Having arrived on the Royal Yacht Britannia through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty. The Opera House became a World Heritage Site in 2007.[38] The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the International Olympic Committee.[39] A strong rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne that began in the 1850s still exists to this day. Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city.[7][40]


Main article: Geography of Sydney


Aerial view of Sydney from May 2012 looking east
Satellite image looking west with Botany Bay on the left and Port Jackson on the right
Captain Arthur Phillip, in one of his first reports back to Britain, described Sydney Cove as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".[41] Sydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.[42][43][44] Deep river valleys known as rias were carved during the Triassic period in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours.[45] Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria.[46] 70 beaches can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous.
Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated. The Nepean River wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching Broken Bay. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The Parramatta River is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay.


Main article: Sydney Basin
Sydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent igneous dykes and volcanic necks. The Sydney Basin was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period.[45] Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are sandstone that is some 200 metres (656 feet) thick and has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds dotted throughout. The sand that was to become this sandstone was washed from Broken Hill and laid down about 200 million years ago. The Basin's sedimentary rocks have been subject to uplift with gentle folding and minor faulting during the formation of the Great Dividing Range.[45] Erosion by coastal streams has created a landscape of deep gorges and remnant plateaus. The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries.


Further information: Climate of Sydney
The Sydney Harbour Bridge in the 2009 Australian dust storm.
Sydney has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with warm, sometimes hot summers and mild winters, with rainfall spread throughout the year.[47] The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. The warmest months are January and February, with an average air temperature range at Observatory Hill of 19.6–26.5 °C (67.3–79.7 °F) for January and 19.7–26.5 °C (67.5–79.7 °F) for February.[48] An average of 14.9 days a year have temperatures of more than 30 °C (86 °F).[48]
In winter, temperatures rarely drop below 5 °C (41 °F) in coastal areas. The coldest month is July, with an average range of 8.7–17.4 °C (47.7–63.3 °F).[48] Rainfall is fairly evenly spread through the year, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year. The average annual rainfall, with moderate to low variability, is 1,213.8 mm (47.79 in), with rain falling on an average of 134.7 days a year.[48][49] Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836, while a fall of graupel, or soft hail, mistaken by many for snow, in July 2008, has raised the possibility that the 1836 event was not snow, either.[50][51] Extreme temperatures have ranged from 45.8 °C (114.4 °F) on 18 January 2013 to 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) on 22 June 1932, the lowest recorded minimum at Observatory Hill.[52][53] At the Sydney Airport station, extremes have ranged from 46.4 to −0.1 °C (115.5 to 31.8 °F).[54]
The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which severely damaged Sydney's eastern and city suburbs. The storm produced massive hailstones of at least 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter and resulting in insurance losses of around A$1.7 billion in less than five hours.[55]
The Bureau of Meteorology has reported that 2002 through 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859.[56] The summer of 2007–2008, however, proved to be one of the coolest summers on record.[57] Warmer and drier conditions came back in 2009 and 2010, when above-average temperatures were recorded. In 2009, the dry conditions brought a severe dust storm towards eastern Australia.[58][59] In 2011, above-average rainfall was recorded.[60]
On 18 January 2013, Sydney experienced record-breaking temperatures with 45.8 °C (114 °F) recorded at Observatory Hill, and a temperature of 46.4 °C (116 °F) recorded at the airport.[61] The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is 27.6 °C (82 °F), in February 2011 while the lowest maximum temperature is 7.7 °C (46 °F), recorded in July 1868.[48]
The average annual temperature of the sea is above 21 °C (70 °F), and the monthly average ranges from 18 °C (64 °F) in July to 24 °C (75 °F) in January.[62][63]

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