Wednesday, July 15, 2015

midnight howl by clare hutton

About This Book

Marisol and her mom move from the city to rural Montana for a few months, and stay with family friends and their twin children, Jack and Hailey. Marisol loves looking at the stars so far away from city lights, but she feels creeped out by the woods right by their house. She's even more scared when her new friend Lily warns her about the wolves there — wolves that are most dangerous around the full moon. When she notices Hailey disappear several times late at night, Marisol starts to wonder...could she be friends with a werewolf?

About the Authors or Illustrators

Clare Hutton is an author of children's books.

Friday, July 3, 2015

Jiangmen City or Jiangmen Shi


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prefecture-level city
Clockwise from top right: Renshou Lu, Gudou Hotspring Resort, Xinhui Confucian Temple, Zhangdi Lu, & Jingtang Library
Clockwise from top right: Renshou Lu, Gudou Hotspring Resort, Xinhui Confucian Temple, Zhangdi Lu, & Jingtang Library
Location of Jiangmen in Guangdong
Location of Jiangmen in Guangdong
Jiangmen is located in China
Location in China
Coordinates: 22°34′N 113°04′ECoordinates: 22°34′N 113°04′E
Country People's Republic of China
Province Guangdong
City Seat Pengjiang District
 • Prefecture-level city 9,443 km2 (3,646 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,692 km2 (653 sq mi)
 • Metro 17,573 km2 (6,785 sq mi)
Elevation 10 m (30 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city 4,448,871
 • Density 470/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,822,640
 • Urban density 1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 • Metro 44,449,738
 • Metro density 2,500/km2 (6,600/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code 529000
Area code(s) 750
License plate prefixes 粤J
Website (Chinese)
JM name.png
"Jiangmen", as written in Chinese calligraphy
Simplified Chinese 江门
Traditional Chinese 江門
Postal Map Kongmoon
Literal meaning River gate
Zhonghua Restaurant, a renovated building along Changdi Middle road in the waterfront district.
Jiangmen (Chinese: 江门) is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong province in southern China with a population of about 4.45 million in 2010. The 3 urban districts are now part of the GuangzhouShenzhen conurbation.



Jiangmen has various alternative romanisations including Kong-Moon, Kongmun[1] or Kiangmoon. The area is alternately referred to as Siyi. The name Jiangmen is often the butt of jokes because both Jiangmen and Gāngmén (肛門), the scientific name for the anus, are pronounced identically as Gōngmùhn in Cantonese.[2] One example which came to national attention in early 2012 was a colon cleansing service provider whose advertisement stated: "We wish the people of Jiangmen to have happy anuses"; Jiangmen residents complained that this slogan was uncivilised and insulting.[3] As a result there have been some proposals to change the name of the city, for example a 2009 proposal to change it to "Qiaodu" (侨都, "City of Overseas Chinese").[4]


The port of Jiangmen, was forced to open to western trade in 1902. One legacy of this period is an historic waterfront district lined with buildings in the treaty port style. The city has an ongoing renewal project which has restored many of these buildings.
Jiangmen was proclaimed a city in 1951, and later became the administrative capital of the prefecture for the Siyi region which includes Taishan, Kaiping, Xinhui, Enping and Heshan.
In 2011, the city banned pet dogs in public after rabies killed 42 people over the preceding 3 years.[5] The city reserved an 13 acre site to allow rural Chinese to adopt the 30,000 dogs,[5][6] but public outcry led to a softer implementation where violators would be told to leave rather than have the dog confiscated.[7]


The city is located on the lower reaches of the Xijiang or West River, in the west of the Pearl River Delta in the middle of southern Guangdong Province. It faces the South China Sea in the south and is 100 kilometres (62 mi) away from Guangzhou and Zhuhai by highway. Jiangmen city has an area of 9,260 square kilometres (3,580 sq mi), about one quarter the size of the Pearl River Delta.
The climate is subtropical with monsoonal influences. The annual average temperature is 21.8 °C (71.2 °F).


Jiangmen was selected by the Chinese state as a pilot city for a nationwide information programme. It was also chosen by the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) as a trial city for the Regional Integration for Sustainable Economics (RISE) project. According to the "Report on Investment Environment in China 2003" by the World Bank, Jiangmen ranked the fourth after Shanghai, Hangzhou and Dalian of 23 cities under evaluation in China. Among various indicators, Jiangmen excelled in infrastructure, labour redundancy, proportion of joint ventures in all firms, informal payments to government, taxation, productivity and the investment rate.
The economic development strategies within Jiangmen focus on the three urban districts, and the south, middle and north lines. It is planned to develop four main economic areas: the central urban district of the city, the Yinzhou Lake (銀州湖) economic area, and two economic areas along the various transport axes.

Manufacturing industries

Similar to other cities in the western Pearl River Delta, the manufacturing sector plays a significant role in Jiangmen's economy. The chief industries include manufacturing of motorcycles, household appliances, electronics, paper, food processing, synthetic fibers and garments, as well as textiles and stainless steel products. Some worldwide brand names have factories in Jiangmen including Haojue motorcycles, Jingling fan/washing machines, Vinda toilet paper, ABB Group and Lee Kum Kee foods.

Uranium processing plant

The city was the proposed site of a $6.5 billion, 40 billion renminbi, uranium processing plant which would have supplied about half of the enriched uranium needed by China's nuclear power plants. Announcement of the plant in July 2013 was met by public protests.[8] The proposal was withdrawn out of "respect for public opinion" shortly thereafter.[9]

Jiangmen port

Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province. The local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries to include petrochemical and machinery plants, as well as an ocean-based economy.


Jiangmen has jurisdiction over:
Map Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)
Jianghai District 江海区 Jiānghǎi Qū 254,365 107 2,377.24
Pengjiang District 蓬江区 Péngjiāng Qū 719,120 325 2,212.67
Xinhui District 新会区 Xīnhuì Qū 849,155 1,260 673.93
Enping 恩平市 Ēnpíng Shì 492,814 1,698 290.23
Taishan 台山市 Táishān Shì 941,087 3,286 286.39
Kaiping 开平市 Kāipíng Shì 697,395 1,659 420.37
Heshan 鹤山市 Hèshān Shì 494,935 1,108 446.69


Jiangmen has a mature network of inter-city highway (between Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Yangjiang etc.). It sits astride a key route between Guangzhou and the southwest region of its home province, and also Guangxi Province.
A network of intra-city roadways has been built since the late 1990s to facilitate industrial integration within the city.
Local bus
Railways came to Jiangmen failry recently. The city is served by the Xinhui branch of the Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit (opened 2011), which provides frequent service to Guangzhou South Railway Station, where connections to the nation's high-speed railway network are available. Since the late 2012, Jiangmen is also served by the freight-only Guangzhou–Zhuhai Railway.
Making use of the Jiangmen Port facilities, Chu Kong Passenger Transport (CKS) connects Jiangmen with high speed ferry services to Hong Kong (95 nautical miles) taking about 2.5 hours each way.

Wednesday, July 1, 2015



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Republic of the Philippines
  • Republika ng Pilipinas
Flag Coat of arms
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1]
"For God, People, Nature, and Country"
Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
Chosen Land
Great Seal
Seal of the Philippines.svg
Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog)
Great Seal of the Philippines
Location of  Philippines  (green)in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Philippines  (green)
in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Capital Manilaa
14°35′N 120°58′E
Largest city Quezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
Optional languagesb
Ethnic groups (2010[3])
Demonym Filipino (masculine)
Filipina (feminine)
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Benigno S. Aquino III
 -  Vice President Jejomar Binay
 -  Senate President Franklin Drilon
 -  House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.
 -  Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno
Legislature Congress
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
Independence from Spainc and the United States d
 -  Spanish conquest 27 April 1565 
 -  British occupation 30 October 1762 
 -  Independence from Spain declared 12 June 1898 
 -  Organic Act 1 July 1902 
 -  Self-government 24 March 1934 
 -  Independence from the United States 4 July 1946 
 -  Current constitution 2 February 1987 
 -  Total 300,000 km2 (73rd)
120,000 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.61[4] (inland waters)
 -  Land 298,170 km2
115,120 sq mi
 -  2015 estimate 101,677,400 (12th)
 -  2010 census 92,337,852
 -  Density 338.92/km2 (43rd)
877.81/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $751.770 billion[5]
 -  Per capita $7,412[5]
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $330.259 billion[5]
 -  Per capita $3,256[5]
Gini (2009) positive decrease 43.0[6]
medium · 44th
HDI (2013) Increase 0.660[7]
medium · 117th
Currency Peso (Filipino: piso) (₱) (PHP)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+8)
Date format
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • dd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the right[8]
Calling code +63
ISO 3166 code PH
Internet TLD .ph
a. ^a While Manila proper is designated as capital, the whole of Metro Manila is designated as seat of government.[9]
b. ^b The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies, "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."[10]
c. ^c Philippine revolutionaries declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, but the Spanish claim of sovereignty was passed from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. This led to the Philippine–American War.
d. ^d The United States of America granted independence to the Philippines on July 4, 1946 through the Treaty of Manila.[11] July 4 was chosen as the date by the United States because it corresponds to the United States' Independence Day, and that day was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until 1962. On May 12, 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, which declared June 12 a special public holiday throughout the Philippines
The Philippines (Listeni/ˈfɪlɨpnz/; Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of 7,107 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila while its most populous city is Quezon City; both are part of Metro Manila.
To the north of the Philippines across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan; Vietnam sits west across the South China Sea; southwest is the island of Borneo across the Sulu Sea, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia; while to the east it is bounded by the Philippine Sea and the island-nation of Palau. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. At approximately 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), the Philippines is the 64th-largest country in the world.
With a population of about 100 million people,[12][13] the Philippines is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples.[14] Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Spanish settlement in the archipelago was established.[15] The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in the predominant religion in the country being Roman Catholicism. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific Manila–Acapulco galleon trade connecting Asia with the Americas.[16]
As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, and the Philippine–American War. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until 1945. After World War II, the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the Philippines often has a tumultuous experience with democracy, which includes the overthrow of a dictatorship by a nonviolent revolution.[17]
The nation's large population size and economic potential have led it to be classified as a middle power. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country,[18] which has been transitioning from being one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing.[19]


King Philip II of Spain.
The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.[20][21][22][23][24]
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country's history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines.[25]


The correct usage of the terms Filipino/a as demonyms is as follows:
  • Filipino (masculine noun)
  • Filipina (feminine noun)
  • Filipino (adjective, m. or f; Explanation: The English language does not require gender agreement for noun-adjective combinations.[26])
  • Imelda is a Filipina.
  • Imelda is a Filipino citizen.


Tabon Cave and its carvings.


Further information: Prehistory of the Philippines
The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remains found in the archipelago to date.[27] This distinction previously belong to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago,.[28][29] Negritos were also among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.[30]
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. The most widely accepted based on linguistic and archeological evidence, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model, which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE, displacing earlier arrivals.[31][32] By 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and maritime harbor principalities.[33]

Classical states

An elaborate border frames a full length illustration one would associate with a manuscript of a man and woman. The dark-skinned man dressed in a red tunic, breeches, and bandanna and wearing a gold chain is looking pleasantly over his shoulder in the direction of the fair woman who, garbed in a dark gold-fringed dress that covers the length of her body except her bare feet, has the faintest hints of a smile.
A Tagalog couple of the Maginoo caste depicted on a page of the 16th-century Boxer Codex.
Some of the societies scattered in the islands remained isolated but many evolved into states that developed substantial trade and contacts with the peoples of Eastern, Southern and Southeastern Asia; including those from Brunei, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Japan as well as other Austronesian islands.[34] The first millennium saw the rise of the harbor principalities and their growth into maritime states composed of autonomous barangays independent of or allied with larger nations which were either Malay thalassocracies led by Datus, Chinese tributary states ruled by Huangs or Indianized Kingdoms governed by Rajahs.[35] The Kedatuan of Madja-as was founded following a civil-war in collapsing Srivijaya, wherein loyalists to the Austronesian Datus of Srivijaya defied the invading Chola Dynasty and its puppet-Rajah called Makatunao and set up a guerrilla-state in the Visayas islands. Its founder, Datu Puti had purchased land for his new realms from the Aboriginal Ati Hero, Marikudo.[36] Madja-as was founded on Panay island. It is an island named after a destroyed state allied under Srivijaya, the kingdom of Pannai which is located in Sumatra. The Rajahnate of Butuan in northeastern Mindanao attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja,[34] who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing over a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry. It also maintained commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the Champa civilization. The Kingdom of Tondo was ruled over by the Lakandula dynasty and the kingdom grew wealthy via the exclusive trading-rights of Chinese goods which they marketed in Southeast Asia. This was granted to them by the Ming Dynasty.[37][38] Also, the Rajahnate of Cebu[39] was led by Rajamuda Sri Lumay, a monarch with partial Tamil descent. This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping routes within the archipelago.[40] In northern Luzon, the Huangdom of Pangasinan under Princess Udaya, exported horses and silver to the Kingdom of Ryukyu and Japan.[41]

Angono Petroglyphs found in Angono, Rizal.
The 1300s heralded the arrival and eventual spread of the Islamic religion in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul' Makdum and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu's rajah and marrying his daughter.[42][43] At the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao. He married Paramisuli, an Iranun princess, and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao.[44]
Islam spread out of Mindanao in the south into Luzon in the north. Manila was Islamized through the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521. This was accomplished because the Bruneian Empire subjugated the Kingdom of Tondo by converting Rajah Salalila to Islam.[45][46][47][48]
States like the Animist Igorot, Malay Madja-as, Sinified Ma-i, and Indianized Butuan still maintained their cultures. The rivalries between the datus, rajahs, huangs, sultans, and lakans eventually eased Spanish colonization. Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated[49] due to consistent natural disasters[50] and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, colonization was made easy and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire and were Hispanicized and Christianized.[51]

Spanish colonization

A mural painting depicting the Battle of Mactan.

The Spanish built Fort Santiago in Manila, built by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1590.
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain.[52] Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic settlements in Cebu. After relocating to Panay island and consolidating a coalition of native Visayan allies and Hispanic soldiers, the Spaniards then captured Islamic Manila. Under Spanish rule, Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies (1571), therein they put down the Tondo Conspiracy and exiled the conspirators to Guam and Guerrero.[53] They also defeated the Chinese-warlord Limahong despite the enemies' overwhelming numbers.[54][55] In response to the Islamic invasion of Tondo, the Castille War was waged against the Sultanate of Brunei in Borneo[56][57] and war was also waged against the Sultanate of Ternate and Tidore (In response to Ternatan slaving and piracy against the Butuan Rajahnate and Bohol).[58] Fortifications were also set up in Taiwan and the Maluku islands. These were abandoned and the soldiers withdrew back to the Philippines. They withdrew in order to re-concentrate the military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born Ming-dynasty loyalist, Koxinga, ruler of the Huangdom of Tungning.[59] However, the invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of Palau and the Marianas.[60]

Antipolo by Fernando Amorsolo shows a town fiesta, one of the legacy of the Spanish, being celebrated by Filipinos.
Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. The Manila galleons and its large naval fleet linking Manila to Acapulco, traveled once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries.[61] Trade introduced foodstuff such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, chocolate and pineapples from Mexico and Peru. New towns were created[55] and Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity. They also founded schools, a university, hospitals and churches which were built along the Earthquake Baroque architectural style. The Spanish decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863, but efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition only during the American period.[62] As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.[63][64]

Gabriela Silang was a famous Filipina revolutionary leader during the Spanish occupation.

During its rule, the Spanish quelled various indigenous revolts. There were several external military challenges from Chinese and Japanese pirates, the Dutch, the English and the Portuguese but these were successfully fought-off despite these hostile forces having encircled the Philippine archipelago in a crescent formed from Japan to Indonesia. Nevertheless, the British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 in an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War. However, Spanish rule was restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.[51][65][66]
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy and an influx of Latin American settlers opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the 1872 Cavite Mutiny that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.[51][67][68][69]
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests—Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed.[67][68] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion.[70] As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[69]
Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic was established in the Barasoain Church in the following year.[51]

American period

President Manuel L. Quezon (November 1942)

Emilio Aguinaldo Shrine where the first flag of the republic was waved.

Battle of Quingua
The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. A compensation of 20 million US dollars was paid to Spain according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris.[71] As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the nascent First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out, the First Republic was defeated, and the archipelago was administered under an Insular Government.[72] The war resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of combatants as well as a couple hundred thousand civilians, mostly from a cholera epidemic.[72][73][74][75]
The Americans then suppressed the sub-states the First Republic had fractured into: mainly, the waning Sultanate of Sulu, as well as the insurgent Tagalog Republic, the Cantonal Republic of Negros, in the Visayas, and the Republic of Zamboanga, in Mindanao.[76][77] During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, with the expansion of Philippine cinema and literature.[78][79][80] Daniel Burnham built an architectural plan for Manila which would have transformed it into a modern city.[81]
In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform.[82][83] Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic of José P. Laurel was established as a collaborator state. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila.[84] In 1944, Quezon died in exile in the United States and Sergio Osmeña succeeded him. The largest naval battle in history (According to gross tonnage), the Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when the Allied Forces started the liberation of the Philippines from the Empire of Japan.[85][86] Eventually, Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.[87][88][89]

Cold War era

On October 24, 1945,[90] the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations and the following year, on July 4, 1946, it became recognized by the United States as independent, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.[4] Disgruntled remnants of the communist Hukbalahap[91] continued to roam the countryside but were put down by President Elpidio Quirino's successor Ramon Magsaysay.[92][93] Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia initiated the Filipino First Policy,[94] which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration,[95][96] while furthering the claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.[97][98]
In 1965, Macapagal lost to Ferdinand Marcos, who was elected president. Early in his presidency he initiated numerous public projects but was accused of massive corruption, such as the embezzlement of billions of dollars in public funds.[99] Amidst great social turmoil and nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations. His wife Imelda continued to live a lavish lifestyle as the majority of Filipinos remained in poverty.[100]
On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., was assassinated at Manila International Airport. Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986 against Aquino's widow, Corazón.[101] Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent, leading to the People Power Revolution. Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and Corazón Aquino was recognized as president.[101][102]

Contemporary history

President Fidel V. Ramos troops the honor guards at the Pentagon with Secretary of Defense William Cohen during a State visit in 1998.
President Fidel V. Ramos troops the honor guards at the Pentagon with U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen during a State visit in 1998.
The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency,[103] and a military conflict with Moro separatists.[104] During Corazon Aquino's administration, U.S. forces withdrew from the Philippines, due the rejection of the U.S. Bases Extension Treaty,[105][106] and leading to the official transfer of Clark Air Base in November 1991 and Subic Bay to the government in December 1992.[107][108] The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991.[109][110] After introducing a constitution that limited presidents to a single term, Aquino did not stand for re-election.
Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, who won the Philippine presidential election held in May 1992. During this period, the economy was known as the "Tiger Economy in Asia", with an average of 6% GDP growth rate.[111] However, the political stability and economic improvements, such as the peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996,[112] were overlooked by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[113][114]
Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada assumed office in June 1998 and managed to regain the economy from −0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[115][116] The government had announced a war against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in March 2000 and neutralized the camps including the headquarters of the insurgents.[117][118] In the middle of ongoing conflict with the Abu Sayyaf,[119] accusations of alleged corruption, and a stalled impeachment process, Estrada's administration was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001.[120]
In Arroyo's 9-year administration, The economy experienced GDP growth from 4% in 2002 to 7% growth in 2007 with the completion of infrastructure projects like the LRT Line 2 in 2004[121] and managed to avoid the Great Recession.[122] Nevertheless, it was tied with graft and political scandals like the Hello Garci scandal pertaining to the alleged manipulation of votes in the 2004 presidential elections.[123][124][125][126] On November 23, 2009, the Maguindanao massacre led to the murder of 34 journalists.[127][128]
Benigno Aquino III won the 2010 national elections and served as the 15th President of the Philippines. He was the third youngest person to be elected president and the first to be a bachelor.[129] During the previous years, The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed on October 15, 2012, as the first step of the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro.[130] However, territorial disputes in eastern Sabah and the South China Sea have escalated.[131][132][133] The economy in the country performed well especially in 2013 at 7.2% GDP growth which is 2nd fastest in Asia[134] Aquino signed the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as K–12 program in May 15, 2013 aiming to enhance the educational system in the country.[135] On November 8, 2013, Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) struck the country and heavily devastated the country especially in the Visayas.[136][137] On April 28, 2014, when United States President Barack Obama visited the Philippines, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, was signed.[138][139][140] From January 15 to 19, 2015, Pope Francis stayed in the Philippines for a series of publicity tours and paid visits to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda).[141][142] On January 25, 2015, 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force were killed after a clash took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao putting efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse.[143][144]


Malacañan Palace, is the President of the Philippines' Official Residence.
The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system.[145] It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.[146][147]
The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet.[148] The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term. The senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[148] The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[148]

Foreign relations

The Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 11 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country.[149] As a founding and active member of the United Nations, the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.[150][151][152]
In addition to membership in the United Nations, the country is also a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region.[153] It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.[154]
The Philippines values its relations with the United States.[149] It supported the United States during the Cold War and the War on Terror and is a major non-NATO ally. Despite this history of goodwill, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in Subic Bay and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time.[149] Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country,[155] is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women, much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II have faded.[156]
Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain.[157][158][159] Despite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers,[160][161] relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.[162]
With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and China have improved greatly. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of caution.[156] Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.[149]
The Philippines is an active member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.[148] It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.[163][164]